THE JUDGES

Teresa Almeida Cravo
Almeida Cravo is a researcher at the Center for Social Studies and Humanitarian Studies, Migrations and Studies for Peace and Assistant Professor of International Relations at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra. She is currently co-coordinator of the PhD in Democracy in the 21st Century and coordinator of the Master in International Relations – Peace, Security and Development Studies. She completed his PhD in the Department of Policy and International Studies at the University of Cambridge. She holds a Master’s Degree in Peace Studies from the University of Bradford, UK, and a Bachelor’s Degree in International Relations from the Faculty of Economics at the University of Coimbra, as well as a Postgraduate Diploma in Human Rights and Democratization at the University of Coimbra. Her research focuses on peace and conflict, security, development, interventionism and foreign policy.

Majid Benchikh
Madjid Benchikh is a Emeritus Professor of International Law at the University of Cergy-Pontoise (Paris-Val d’Oise), France, where he also directed the Doctoral School of Law and Humanities. Previously he was the Dean and President of the Scientific Council of the Faculty of Law of Algiers, Algeria. He coordinated the creation of the Amnesty International section in Algeria of which he was the first president and he was a founding member of the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal. Furthermore, he has taught in several universities in Algeria and in Europe and published several books including “International Public Law” (Casbah Editions 2016, Algiers). He has organized various struggles to denounce violations of democratic freedoms and human rights in Algeria or in other countries.

Luciana Castellina
A journalist and writer, Castellina has been an proponent of the Italian Communist Party and the Unity Party for Communism, and has served in the Italian Parliament as an MP during several governments. She was a Member of the European Parliament at its foundation of 1979 and has until 1994 been re-elected several times. Former Vice-president of the EU Commission on Latin and Central America, she is honorary President of the Arci association and member of the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal.

Domenico Gallo
A Magistrate, Gallo has been serving in the Court of Cassation of Rome since 2007, recently taking on the role of President of the Chamber. He was elected Senator in 1994. Throughout his life, Gallo has actively participated in civil society movements active on the theme of peace and the defense of human rights and has edited numerous publications on issues related to institutional and human rights issues. In 2013 he published “Da sudditi a cittadini il percorso della democrazia” (Ega). He regularly writes for the newspapers Il Manifesto and Il fatto quotidiano.

Denis J.  Halliday
Halliday was the United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator in Iraq from 1 September 1997 until his resignation in 1998. He was previously Deputy Resident Representative to Singapore of the United Nations Development Programme. He holds an M.A.in Economics, Geography and Public Administration from Trinity College, Dublin. After a 34-year career at the United Nations, where he had reached Assistant Secretary General level, Halliday resigned in 1998 over UN sanctions that cut off food supplies to Iraq, characterizing them as “genocidal.” Laureate of the Gandhi International Peace Award, Halliday is member of the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal.

Norman Paech
Born in Bremerhaven, Germany, Paech is a lawyer and Professor Emeritus of Political Science and Public Law at the University of Hamburg, Germany.

Philippe Texier
Texier is the current President of the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal. He is also an honorary judge at the Cassation Court of France. Previously, he was a member of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights from 1987 to 2008 and its Chairperson from 2008 to 2009. Texier was director of the Human Rights Division of ONUSAL (UN Observer Mission in El Salvador) from 1991 to 1992, and an independent expert of the Human Rights Commission in Haiti from 1988 to 1990.